In absence of demonstrated suc- of the country, cess, the use of reserves and lengthened rota- tions continues to be the preferred method for ● Improving our knowledge of the relationships retaining old growth in the forest landscape. [...] At the landscape level, this diversity can be A new vision for forestry in boreal forests has been found in the form of a great variety of forest stand developed and expressed through the National types,17, 18 at the stand level in the form of complex Boreal Standard of the Forest Stewardship Council forest canopies consisting of trees of different ages19 (FSC). [...] Figure 5 summarizes these findings and illustrates the im- Therefore, in addition to maintaining all stand portance of maintaining within-stand structural di- types, ages and successional stages, silvicultural versity and a variety of stand types if the full range planning must incorporate the provision of stand- of species is to be conserved. [...] Lichens form the base of food webs in disproportionate losses reflect the synergy resulting which lichen-eating invertebrates are primary con- from the combination of various edge effects, in- sumers and are, in turn, devoured by small preda- cluding the decrease in the absolute area of suitable tors, such as foliage-gleaning songbirds.80 habitat and the increase in distances between suit- In Scan [...] Habitat enhancement, however, will be a later con- sequence of both the initial choice of silvicultural The emulation of natural disturbance has been pro- system and the nature of subsequent stand-tending posed as a way to conserve the majority of species activities.
agriculture environment forests conservation biodiversity natural resources forest management biogeochemistry biology botany ecology silviculture ecosystem boreal forest edge effects nature conservation biology land resources caribou boreal forest of canada forests and forestry clearcutting silvicultural systems disturbance (ecology) coarse woody debris clearcut black spruce snags clearcuts shelterwood