cover image: PICES SCIENTIFIC REPORT No. 55,  2019 Report of Working Group 28 on


PICES SCIENTIFIC REPORT No. 55, 2019 Report of Working Group 28 on

20 Sep 2020

These frameworks and identified pressures and habitats were used to explore the main pressures and their impacts in two similar coastal marine ecosystems in the North Pacific: the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, and the Strait of Georgia, Canada. [...] 1.3 How important are the effects of multiple pressures on marine ecosystems? Beginning with the expectation that most marine systems will be subjected to multiple pressures, and the conceptual differences above between single and multiple pressure impacts, what indicators can be developed to observe changes in ecosystems with multiple pressures? The ‘gold standard’ in deriving indicators of the r. [...] (2015) carried out a meta-analysis of the responses of the early life stages (embryo to larva) of several marine organisms to the combined effects of multiple pressures associated with global change (i.e., with a focus on laboratory manipulations of temperature, salinity, and pH). [...] 2.2 Frameworks linking multiple pressures to changes in North Pacific marine ecosystems A number of frameworks and approaches have been developed to examine the interacting and complex nature of connecting multiple pressures to impacts and changes in marine ecosystems. [...] The DPSIR approach formalizes the relationships between a driver, the pressures that result from this driver, the changes of state caused by these pressures, the impacts (usually to human activities or values) caused by these changes of state, and the responses by human societies that are (usually) directed to the drivers to mitigate the impacts (Fig.
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