6 July 2022
• Use every forum and venue available to build networks, strengthen relationships and open communication channels among agri-food trading partners, including the informal and formal options provided by PTAs, multilateral groups and the World Trade Organization to facilitate and encourage any and all means of regulatory convergence. [...] Table 2 in the Appendix presents a snapshot of the change in the top 25 Canadian exports to the EU in 2021 compared to their pre-CETA status in 2016, both in dollar value and percentage. [...] The Canadian government indicated interest in expanding exports of grains and oilseeds, including durum and common wheat, soybeans, canola oil, frozen fruit and maple syrup, to the EU, as well as meats, fruits and vegetables and processed foods through CETA (Government of Canada n.d.). [...] SPS and TBT measures are extensively used by the EU, including banning the import of beef produced using growth hormone10 (Viju and Kerr 2011; Kerr and Hobbs 2015) and banning the use of antibiotics in cattle production, certification and testing requirements (Powell 2019; Canada Beef 2021; CBC 2019). [...] Given the emphasis on co- operative engagement and conflict prevention in Canada’s PTAs, and the lack of actual enforceability in many SPS and TBT provisions, the likelihood of regulatory convergence occurring through legislation in PTAs is slim.