The policy framework illustrates, in principle, the relationship between children’s developmental health, the social determinants of developmental health, and the social and institutional contexts (i.e., family, social networks, and health, education and care services in communities) that underpin developmental health. [...] We would like to emphasize a point that is quite critical to the framework: a common misconception is that “universal” means “mandatory”, and that the existence of “quality” criteria for programs and services implies the “sameness” of those programs and services. [...] In fact, the framework aims to convincingly demonstrate that a comprehensive family policy needs to have the resources and the flexibility to provide a combination of universal and targeted programs. [...] The before-tax measure might be considered an indicator of the adequacy of income flowing into the family and the after-tax measure an indicator of the adequacy of disposable income. [...] In the past, the rationale for accepting more children per staff in kindergarten may have been based on the part-day, part-year nature of the programs for the oldest children in the UNICEF range, and the fact that staffing qualifications are higher for kindergarten educators than for those in licensed child care.
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