Women Entrepreneurship in MENA: - The Cases of Bahrain, Lebanon, and Tunisia
22 August 2023
Women Entrepreneurship in MENA | 01 Women and Entrepreneurship in the MENA Region that help explain the gender gap in starting and especially growing businesses in the region: • Education: to reform education, the quality of education in the various countries studied is still lacking and does not promote workforce and business readiness. [...] of graduates in the arts and humanities, respectively; 73 and 75 percent in health and welfare; and 73 and 77 percent in the social sciences, journalism, and communications. The lack of women’s participation in STEM is a inequality. [...] Bahrain has one of the longest histories of women’s movements in the Convention in 2000, the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 2002, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 2006, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights in 2007. [...] The penalty is one year in prison and a women prohibits sexual harassment of women in public places, and the Penal Women Entrepreneurship in MENA | 23 The Tunisian labor code does not include any provisions on sexual harassment in the workplace, except in Article 76, which requires adherence to “good manners” and “public morals.” The 2004 definition of sexual harassment is also limited in scope, e. [...] In 2021, Bahraini women accounted for about 43 percent of the total labor force. Institutional and legal reforms, including the adoption of the National Charter in 2001 and the Constitution of Bahrain in 2002, have resulted in the number of women employed doubling within 20 years.