Witherspoon, 2017 3 ‘Analysis of Low-Tech Terrorism in Western Democracies: Attacks with Vehicles, Blades and Incendiary Devices’ This study explores the issue of low-tech terrorism in Canada, France, Germany, the United States and the United Kingdom from 2001 through 2017. [...] Some of these lone-actor attacks targeted Muslim immigrants (calling the victims “terrorists” prior to attacking them) and Jews, while others were carried out by known Muslim individuals who previously traveled to Turkey, allegedly with intentions of joining the so-called Islamic 10 National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). [...] The seemingly far-right attacks targeting immigrants typically employed incendiary weapons and targeted property, whereas the attacks committed by Muslim individuals targeted private citizens and police officers, and used melee weapons and vehicles.15 Both incendiary and melee attacks have significantly increased between 2013 and 2016, corresponding with the rise in melee attacks in Germany. [...] Lastly, it is important to note that the 2015 Paris attacks, which killed one-hundred and thirty people, are not included in this analysis given that the weapons used do not fit the criteria for this study.16 Figure 3 - LTT by Weapon Type, France (2001-2016)17 3. LTT in the United Kingdom: 13 National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). [...] The groups responsible for LTT attacks in the United Kingdom between 2012-2015 include: the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), the Earth Liberation Front (ELF), anarchists, dissident republicans, and mutations of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), such as the so-called New Irish Republican Army and the Continuity Irish Republican Army.
government politics democracy crime violence international law terrorism criminal law ied law national security human rights abuses defence crime, law and justice public sphere terrorist jewish defence league vehicle-ramming attack ulster volunteer force westminster attack jewish defense league 2017 westminster attack attack in westminster adrian russell elms